Showing posts with label cancer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label cancer. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 09, 2012

We’ve seen the light: Nasa spots light being emitted from “super-Earth” planet

NASA-super-Earth planet
 Super-Earth” Planet
Light glowing from a "super-Earth" planet beyond our solar system has been detected by Nasa’s Spitzer Telescope.

Until now, scientists have never been able to detect infrared light emanating from 55 Cancri E, a super-hot extrasolar planet twice the size and eight times the mass of our own.

Experts are hailing the latest discovery as a historic step towards the eventual search for signs of life on other planets.

55 Cancri E is one of five exoplanets orbiting a bright star named 55 Cancri in a solar system lying in the constellation of Cancer (The Crab).

Previously, Spitzer and other telescopes were able to study the planet by observing how the light from 55 Cancri changed as the planet passed in front of the star.

In the new study, Spitzer instead measured how much infrared light came from the planet itself – revealing some of the planet’s major features.

At 41-light years from Earth, the giant planet is considered uninhabitable.

The giant planet is tidally locked, so one side always faces the star. The telescope found that the sun-facing side is extremely hot, indicating the planet probably does not have a substantial atmosphere to carry the sun's heat to the unlit side.

On its sun-facing side, the surface has a temperature of 1,727 Celsius – or 3,140 degrees Fahrenheit –  That’s hot enough to melt silver or aluminium.

It is calculated that one year on the alien planet lasts just 18 hours.

The new findings are consistent with a previous theory that 55 Cancri E is a water world: A rocky core surrounded by a layer of water in a "supercritical" state where it is both liquid and gas, and topped by a blanket of steam.

Bill Danchi, Spitzer programme scientist at NASA, said: “Spitzer has amazed us yet again. The spacecraft is pioneering the study of atmospheres of distant planets and paving the way for NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope to apply a similar technique on potentially habitable planets.”

Michael Werner, who also works on the Spitzer project, added: “When we conceived of Spitzer more than 40 years ago, exoplanets hadn't even been discovered. Because Spitzer was built very well, it's been able to adapt to this new field and make historic advances such as this.”

The planet was first discovered in 2004 and the new findings are published in the current issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters.

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Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Safer Mani-Pedis: Steps You Can Take

Nail care products are displayed at a beauty supply shop in San Francisco
Although the state of California this week reported finding a "toxic trio" of ingredients in some inaccurately labeled nail polishes, there's no need to give up those mani-pedis in the name of health.

"Manufacturers have broken the level of trust with the public and with the nail salon community," said Julia Liou, co-founder of the California Healthy Nail Salon Collaborative, Tuesday before appearing with state officials to discuss the findings of the report.

"No one can trust the labels," Liou said. The report said that some nail polish manufacturers are making claims on their product labels to be free of the "toxic trio" of chemicals linked to cancer, asthma and birth defects, even though state testing of 25 products in some cases detected them.

While accepting that some labeling may be unreliable and could be improved, consumers who want painted nails also should think about where they're having their nails done. Air quality inside a salon is important no matter how often patrons come in. It's even more important to the thousands of licensed manicurists -- 121,000 in California alone -- who may breathe chemical fumes 10 hours a day, seven days a week, said Liou, a public health administrator at Asian Health Services in Oakland, who is among advocates pressing for better ventilation to dissipate the concentrated chemical vapors.

In its "Safer Nail Salons," report, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control tested 25 randomly selected nail polishes and thinners for three common chemicals that make nail lacquers shiny, quick-drying and flexible.

One of the three toxins, the aromatic solvent toluene, can irritate the eyes, throat and lungs, damage the nervous system and potentially harm an unborn child. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which keeps polish from becoming brittle, also can cause reproductive harm. Formaldehyde, a nail hardener also used in a wide variety of products including air fresheners and the Brazilian Blowout hair straightener, is a known carcinogen.

Tests found toluene in 10 of a dozen products labeled toluene-free, and also identified at least one member of the toxic trio in five of seven products labeled as "three-free."

Despite the chemical exposures inherent in applying base coats, color, top coats and nail-hardeners to fingernails and toenails in the name of beauty, here are some ways to reduce health risks.

Consider water-based polishes like those made by Acquarella, which don't give off fumes, instead of solvent-based polishes, said Stacy Malkan, co-founder of the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics.

"I use it and it doesn't smell, which is a novelty," Malkan said.

Try brands like OPI and Sally Hansen, which have made concerted efforts to eliminate the most toxic chemicals from their nail polishes since the European Union banned the use of DBP in cosmetics in 2004 and a 2006 public campaign put pressure on the $6 billion nail care products industry to make formula changes, said Lisa Archer, director of the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics.

"Clearly, it's possible to make a safer product," Archer said.

Keep children and toddlers out of nail salons. "Minimizing any exposure for kids is important, because that's when they're most vulnerable to the harmful effects of some of these chemicals," Malkan said.

Children Can Bring Their Own Non-Toxic Polishes to Parties

If you have a child who insists on having or attending birthday parties where nail decoration is part of the fun, think about sending her off with her own supply of a non-toxic polish from Hopscotch Kids, suggests Jennifer Taggart, a Los Angeles consumer products attorney, blogger and author of "The Smart Mama's Green Guide."

Taggart, who before her marriage sported acrylic nails, said she's reluctant to allow her daughter to have a salon manicure "because you don't control what they're using, you don't know about the ventilation, and there are people doing acrylics or gels or all the other types of applications."

Taggart remembers refusing to let her daughter participate at a princess party where the children's nails were being polished and spritzed with a quick-drying nail spray. Although she considers the bring-your-own-polish technique a compromise, it has allowed her daughter to avoid feeling left out and allowed Taggart to sleep at night.

Try to find a well-ventilated spot when you visit a nail salon. Consider sitting close to an open window, or step outside for some fresh air, Malkan said.

Do-it-yourselfers should choose well-ventilated areas for at-home manicures and pedicures.

Reduce or eliminate your visits to nail salons as soon as you know you're pregnant. The developing fetus is particularly sensitive to the volatile chemicals in polishes and thinners.

Manicurists should consider working in a well-ventilated salon. Even better, they should have exhaust hoods at their nail stations, Malkan said. They also should consider wearing masks and gloves to protect lungs and skin from chemical irritants.

If you're concerned about ingredients in your favorite brands of nail polish, Malkan suggested going to the Skin Deep online safety database, created by the Environmental Working Group, which ranks products from 0 to 10, and choose products at the lower end of the scale, from 0 to 2.

When in doubt about product formulations, contact the manufacturer by phone or email, Taggart suggested. She said she worries less about the effects of the toxic trio in nail polish alone than the cumulative effects of multiple exposures to the formaldehyde that's also in pressed wood products and secondhand smoke and the phthalates also in face creams, perfumes and scented products. "You have to be aware of label claims and realize that they're not always accurate, whether it's a product saying it's natural or green, or whether saying it's free of a particularly chemical," she said. "Ask the company what standard do you use? How do you test? Who verifies it?"

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Sunday, March 04, 2012

How To Treat Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer

Surgery remains the treatment most commonly practiced. The surgeon removes the tumor, which will be analyzed by the pathologist, to specify the size, aggressiveness, presence or absence of hormone receptors. These data are essential in choosing the treatment option. The type of surgery (total removal of the mammary gland, or lumpectomy) depends primarily on the clinical size of the tumor. In the same operation, is performed with axillary lymph node on the same side as the tumor, to detect any cancer foci in the lymph nodes examined. This dissection can be limited by the methods of scintigraphic study coupled with the frozen section examination performed in the operating room, and shows the absence or presence of cancer cells in the first lymph nodes removed (sentinel node). It is important to examine these nodes because they filter the lymph that comes from within and circulates throughout the body. They represent the first sites of tumor extent. If the lymph nodes examined were positive, there may be cancer cells during migration in the body. This risk will determine the choice of therapy after surgery. All information gathered in the "staging". Different types of surgeries are performed in the treatment of breast cancer. The technique used depends on several factors but mainly on the size and location of the tumor:

    * Lumpectomy: removal of the tumor.
    * Partial mastectomy: removal of the tumor, a portion of surrounding tissue and the lining of the pectoral muscles near the tumor.
    * Modified radical mastectomy: removal of the breast and the lining of the pectoral muscles (keeping the muscles).
    * Radical mastectomy or Halsted operation: removal of the entire breast, chest muscles, and some fatty tissue and skin. It is no longer practiced to this day as very mutilating.


Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and prevent their development. Like surgery, it is a local treatment, without any action on potential metastatic sites remotely. It can be administered in different ways:

    * Or from a source of radiation external;
    * Or from radioactive materials directly implanted in the womb. This is known as "brachytherapy".

Both methods can be combined. External radiation therapy is usually performed on an outpatient basis. At the end of this conventional radiotherapy, an overlay can be performed radiotherapy to the tumor site. This additional radiation therapy can also be applied by brachytherapy. In the latter case, the patient should be hospitalized for a short period. Radiotherapy is often used to complement surgery, either before (known preoperative radiotherapy, the aim being to reduce the size of the tumor) or after (it is then postoperative radiotherapy, the aim prevent a recurrence of the tumor).


It has a single drug or a combination of anti-tumor agents (most common), there is a treatment whose interests the general circulation throughout the body (treatment called "systemic" as well as hormone treatments as opposed to "local" as surgery or radiotherapy). It can be administered before or after surgery. If it is prescribed to destroy potential metastatic sites after surgery, it is called "adjuvant". Its indications depend on a number of factors called "prognostic". The main drug treatments combine the molecules of doxorubicin (anthracycline family), cyclophosphamide or fluorouracil. Molecules from a tree, yew, also made their appearance: they are the taxanes used in metastatic breast cancer and recently in an earlier stage of the disease.


Hormone treatment is "systemic". It aims to prevent, in some cases, tumor cells receiving the hormones necessary for their development. His administration is decided depending on the hormone receptor status in tumor tissues. This method is to inhibit the production of hormones implicated, either by administration of anti-hormones, either by suppressing the production of these hormones (definitively: surgical castration or radiotherapy, or transiently: chemical castration). The choice between chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or both, is a function of patient age, hormonal status and the detection of hormone receptors. If positive, hormone therapy is usually effective.

Targeted therapies

Targeted therapies specifically attack cancer cells without touching healthy cells. One of the targeted therapy is based on "monoclonal antibodies". They are manufactured specifically for antibodies recognize an antigen expressed by a tumor. These monoclonal antibodies can either target the tumor directly, or its environment. Trastuzumab (Herceptin ®) is one of these molecules, whose mode of action is to address the overexpressing tumors (that is to say too much of) a protein (HER2). It is used alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Other targeted therapies will inhibit the growth of blood vessels needed for tumor development. "Hungry", this, will stop proliferating or die. These are molecules called "antiangiogenic" such as sunitinib. The "borderline lesions". These cancers "in situ" or noninvasive, should be considered separately. Treatment can range from conservative surgery to mastectomy, the choice of treatment depends mainly on the histological type encountered. In some cases, radiation therapy may be necessary after partial surgery. In contrast, treatment of inflammatory cancer chemotherapy based on early and aggressively, then surgery and / or radiotherapy, and as appropriate, a hormone.

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Monday, January 02, 2012

Top Ten Facts About Prostate Cancer

prostate cancer
Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most controversial cancers in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • If you’re cursed with a cancer - this is the one to ask for!!
  • Prostate cancer is more aggressive in a black person than a white person
  • This is the second commonest cancer that affect men after lung cancer
  • The risk of developing prostate cancer increases after the age of 50 years. Majority of prostate cancer are diagnosed in men over 65 years.
  • There are over 2 million American men currently living with prostate cancer.
  • Charles B. Huggins in 1941 was awarded a Nobel prize for understanding that prostate cancer was dependent on testosterone for its growth and spread and this could be reversed by giving estrogens, the so called ‘Chemical Castration’.
  • Prostate Specific Antigen - a marker to diagnose prostate cancer was first used in forensic investigation to determine if a stain on the undergarment was due to semen or not.
  • The use of ‘robotics in surgery’ is most commonly deployed for removing a malignant prostate cancer from the pelvis.
  • Prostate cancer is a relatively slow-growing cancer. For all stages of the cancer the average 5-year survival rate is 98% and the 10-year survival rate is 84%. Remember - Most people die with this cancer and not of it.
News By Medindia

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Breast Cancer Facts and Figures

Breast Cancer
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women
  • The risk of breast cancer increases with age and if you live to 90 years your risk of developing this cancer is almost 14%
  • 1.7 million breast cancers were diagnosed worldwide in 2007
  •  465,000 (approx.) women died due to breast cancer in 2007
  • North America, Australia, Europe have the highest incidence of breast cancer
  •  Large parts of Africa and Asia have the lowest rates
  • In the last 25 years it incidence has gone up by 30% in the western world
  •  Increased risk of developing breast cancer include -
  • Start of menstrual period at an early age
  •  Menopause later in life 
  • Having a first or second degree relative with breast cancer
  • Obesity
  • Consumption of alcohol
  • Never having children
  • Using contraceptives
  • Using hormone replacement therapy during post-menopausal years
  • Certain inherited genetic mutations for breast cancer (BRCA1 and/or BRCA2)
  • Decreased Breast cancer Risk -
  • Breast feeding
  • Moderate Physical activity
  • Maintaining normal weight
  • Stop smoking
  • Breast cancer can be prevented by screening
  • Early treatment can increase chances of 5 years survival to 98%
  • Women with a BRCA mutation who get their ovaries surgically removed can reduce their risk of breast cancer by over 50%.
  • A study from North Carolina State University indicated that Women who performed the act of fellatio and swallow semen regularly (one to two times a week) may reduce their risk of breast cancer by up to 40 percent !!
News By Medindia

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Sunday, November 13, 2011

5 Major Health Threats That Your Dentist Can Predict

laughing teeth
Laughing Teeth
When you look in your mouth you may see teeth that need whitening, but a dentist may see signs of heart disease. A study published in the Journal of Dental Research found that many dental problems can be signs of serious health complications. University of Washington School of Dentistry professor Philippe P. Hujoel, DDS, PhD, says the sugar and carbohydrates in food, known as "fermentable carbohydrates," are to blame. Found in sugary drinks, snack foods like potato chips, and simple grains like white bread and corn, these carbs are fermented by bacteria in your mouth, which produces the acids that cause tooth decay. "Those dental diseases are a marker for an unhealthy diet, and an unhealthy diet may predict future health complications," Dr. Hujoel notes.

#1: Obesity
"If a kid has tooth decay and cavities, he probably has high exposure to fermentable carbs," Dr. Hujoel says. "He's really having too many snacks and candy, and this may very well be the kid that ends up obese." For adults, too, an increase in cavities could mean you're eating too many unhealthy foods, which also puts you at risk for obesity. A dentist who knows your medical history may ask about your eating habits, but you should feel free to ask if what's happening to your teeth might be a sign of other problems.

#2: Cardiovascular disease
The same carbs in snack foods and sugary drinks that get dentists drilling are often found in the company of unhealthy ingredients like trans fatty acids. While trans fats themselves don't cause cavities, they're often used in foods with high amounts of cavity-causing fermentable carbs, and they have been associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease. Whenever you can, replace processed, packaged food with fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. For those sweet treats you can't give up, check the labels to make sure they're trans fat free.

It's also possible for cavities themselves to threaten your heart, if the bacteria that produce them find their way into your cardiovascular system. Bacteria associated with tooth and gum disease may also be involved in stroke, diabetes, and respiratory problems—so brush and floss every day.

#3: Diabetes
The fermentable carbohydrates in sugary drinks and snacks loaded with carbs increase your blood sugar level drastically, raising the risk of type 2 diabetes, Dr. Hujoel says. Which is one more reason to switch to a diet that produces fewer cavities. "Lifelong usage of high fermentable carbohydrates first leads to dental disease, and then, long-term, leads to other health outcomes," Dr. Hujoel adds.

#4: Cancer
Not only does a tooth-unhealthy diet put you at risk for obesity, which is a risk factor for certain cancers, harmful lifestyle habits like smoking can produce tooth discoloration and periodontal destruction. Abnormalities in your mouth, including bleeding gums and cavities, should be a natural alarm bell, Dr. Hujoel says. So always ask your dentist if your tooth problems could point toward a wider problem.

#5: Alzheimer's disease
In a study just published in The Journal of the American Dental Association, people who lost most of their teeth were more likely to develop dementia problems, such as Alzheimer's disease, later on. It will take more research to clarify what the connection between tooth loss and brain health may be. But is seems that keeping your teeth as healthy possible has benefits that go far beyond your mouth.

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Saturday, October 29, 2011

Former Brazilian President Lula with cancer of the larynx

Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
Former Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva is a cancer of the larynx, said Saturday, Oct. 29 in a statement the Syrian-Lebanese Hospital in Sao Paulo where he was admitted. The former president aged 66, who ruled Brazil from 2003 to 2010, will undergo chemotherapy, the hospital said. "The patient is doing well and should follow the treatment as outpatients," says the same source. Lula, a former mechanic, left the presidency last year after being considered one of the most popular presidents of Brazil. During his tenure, he implemented social programs that have allowed 29 million Brazilians out of poverty and placed his country in the center of the international diplomatic scene.

Syro-Lebanese Hospital specializes in the treatment against cancer, and had treated José Alencar, Vice President Lula, who died last March in a generalized cancer in the abdominal area, he had developed since 1997. In 2009, Dilma Rousseff, who took over from Lula, had been treated for cancer of the lymphatic system, following which the doctors have declared completely healed.

News by Lemonde

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Lung cancer: an X-ray does not reduce the annual mortality.

lung cancer
Lung cancer
AFP - The annual radiographs of the chest do not reduce mortality from lung cancer, according to a large clinical study presented Wednesday to the United States that shows the futility of this procedure. "These results provide strong evidence that there is no substantial gain in survival for people with lung cancer with an annual x-ray of their lungs," write the authors of the research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) dated November 2. It is published on Wednesday in the online edition of JAMA because of his presentation that day at the annual conference of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST 2011) held from October 22 to 26 in Honolulu (Hawaii).

The study was conducted in the United States from November 1993 to July 2001 by Dr. Martin Oken of the University of Minnesota (north) with a group of 154,901 participants aged 55-74 years, of which only half was chosen at random to undergo annual radiography of their lungs for four years. The other group was the subject of examinations and routine medical care. Participants in both groups were similar with an equal proportion of men and women. Each of these groups were also 45% of never smokers, former smokers 42% and 10% still smoking. During a follow-up period of 13 years ended in 2009, these researchers have diagnosed lung cancers in 1696 the group subjected to an X-ray and annual 1620 in the control group.

Mortality rates that resulted from these cancers observed in both groups over the 13 years were almost identical with 1213 deaths among those who have had an x-ray and 1,230 deaths annually in the control group. 

The distribution of different types of tumors in both groups was also similar with 41% of adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma 20%, 14% of small cell carcinoma, 5% of large cell carcinoma and 20% other variants epithelioma of large cell. In an editorial also published in JAMA, Dr. Harold Sox of Dartmouth Medical School in West Lebanon (New Hampshire, North-East) considers that the results of this study "provide compelling evidence that radiography of the chest to detect lung cancer is not effective "in reducing mortality.

According to him, "this study is important to resolve this issue once" and use of helical scan (CT scan, allowing the reconstruction of 2D or 3D anatomical tissue) as the imaging technique. An extensive study conducted on 50,000 American smokers and former smokers aged 55 to 74 smokers, unveiled in 2010, has actually shown that this technique allowed better detection of small tumors in their early stage of development than traditional radiography, thus reducing 20% mortality. 

This clinical study called "National Lung Screening Trial" showed for the first time that early detection of a cancerous tumor of the lung reduces the risk of dying, which is a great step forward, said Dr. Sox. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and around the world.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Regular consumption of coffee reduces the risk of skin cancer.

AFP - daily consumption of coffee reduces the risk of basalioma, the skin cancer the most common, according to a study published Monday in the U.S. which seems to confirm previous research conducted on mice. The authors of this study, women who drink more than three cups of coffee a day are in danger of developing a basalioma (or squamous basacellulaire) reduced by 20% compared to those consuming little or not at all. For the men - who seem less benefit from this protective effect without the reasons to be explained - consume more than three cups of coffee daily reduced by at least 9% their risk of developing skin cancer.

The research presented at a conference of the American Association for Cancer Research in Boston (Massachusetts, North East) shows that the more we consume more coffee reduces the risk of basalioma. The study authors have themselves expressed surprise at these results. If a relationship was observed in mice between caffeine as an ointment and reducing the risk of skin cancer, epidemiological studies have not clearly shown the same link. "Our study indicates that coffee consumption may be an important option to help prevent the skin cancer," said Fengju Song, one of the authors. 

With nearly one million new cases diagnosed each year basalioma United States, dietary factors such as drinking coffee daily, even with modest protective effects, could have a major impact on public health, the researchers believe.

They believe these results warrant further research to better understand the relationship between coffee consumption and a lower incidence of skin cancer. This research was made with data from two large studies, including one focused on 72,921 participants between 1984 and 2008 and the second with 39,976 people followed from 1986 to 2008.